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Available at the UNF Bookstore. Access MasteringChemistry and run the browser checkup and install the necessary plug-ins. If there is an issue loading a particular problem, try a different web browser, insure all operating system updates are installed, try a different computer e. UNF library or computer lab. Exams The exam format typically consists of conceptual questions and problems to be worked and answered multiple choice format.

Red ParScore Scantron sheets will be provided and used on the exam. See the syllabus for dates of exams. A common question is "How do I prepare for the exam? There isn't a single answer and it varies from student to student. General suggestions are given below. Read before lecture. Read the pertinent sections of the chapter before lecture, and work the sample exercises. Test yourself by attempting the Give It Some Thought questions. Take notes during lecture. Taking well-organized notes helps you understand the material.

Taking notes by hand is likely to help develop a deeper understanding of the material and better long-term comprehension. Cramming won't work. Cramming puts things into your short term memory and if you're exhausted, it's very short term. You should study throughout the weeks before the exam, so that when the day to take the exam comes, you will feel confident of your preparation. Learn the concepts via well-organized notes taken during lecture and reading the chapter.

Make an outline of the materials you have been studying the chapter, without having the book open. How close does your chapter outline compare to the chapter summary and key terms, key skills, and key equations at the end of each chapter?

Ensure you have the big picture and focus on meeting the chapter objectives. You can listen and watch someone tell you how to hit a baseball, run a marathon, or learn a second language, but without practice none are possible.

01 - Introduction To Chemistry - Online Chemistry Course - Learn Chemistry & Solve Problems

Complete the MasteringChemistry exam review assignment. Work problems and answer questions, preferably new problems from the end of the chapter.If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website.

To log in and use all the features of Khan Academy, please enable JavaScript in your browser. Donate Login Sign up Search for courses, skills, and videos. Preparing to study chemistry. Chemistry draws on math, physics, and general science skills. See how to prepare yourself for success in chemistry. Course summary. Atoms, compounds, and ions. Introduction to the atom : Atoms, compounds, and ions Ions and compounds : Atoms, compounds, and ions Names and formulas of ionic compounds : Atoms, compounds, and ions.

Mass spectrometry : Atoms, compounds, and ions. Chemical reactions and stoichiometry. Balancing chemical equations : Chemical reactions and stoichiometry Stoichiometry : Chemical reactions and stoichiometry Limiting reagent stoichiometry : Chemical reactions and stoichiometry. Molecular composition : Chemical reactions and stoichiometry Types of chemical reactions : Chemical reactions and stoichiometry.

Electronic structure of atoms. History of atomic structure : Electronic structure of atoms Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom : Electronic structure of atoms Quantum numbers and orbitals : Electronic structure of atoms. Electron configurations : Electronic structure of atoms. Periodic table. Introduction to the periodic table : Periodic table Periodic table trends : Periodic table.

Chemical bonds. Types of chemical bonds : Chemical bonds Dot structures and molecular geometry : Chemical bonds Hybridization and hybrid orbitals : Chemical bonds. Gases and kinetic molecular theory. Ideal gas equation : Gases and kinetic molecular theory Non-ideal gas behavior : Gases and kinetic molecular theory. States of matter and intermolecular forces. States of matter : States of matter and intermolecular forces Introduction to intermolecular forces : States of matter and intermolecular forces Mixtures and solutions : States of matter and intermolecular forces.

general chemistry notes

Chemical equilibrium. Equilibrium constant : Chemical equilibrium Factors that affect chemical equilibrium : Chemical equilibrium.

Acids and bases. Acids, bases, and pH : Acids and bases Acid-base equilibria : Acids and bases. Buffers, titrations, and solubility equilibria. Buffer solutions : Buffers, titrations, and solubility equilibria Titrations : Buffers, titrations, and solubility equilibria Solubility equilibria : Buffers, titrations, and solubility equilibria.Our summary is only meant to highlight key points that are most helpful for the MCAT.

In some respects, this General Chemistry cheat sheet will minimize your need to memorize information and maximize your General Chemistry review. A cheat sheet on bonding - from partial ionic character to Lewis Acids and Lewis Bases. Combination reactions qualify as non-redox reactions when all reactants and products are compounds and the oxidation numbers do not change.

Decomposition reactions qualify as non-redox reactions when all reactants and products are compounds and the oxidation numbers do not change.

General Chemistry Notes

The order for filling atomic orbitals: Follow the direction of successive arrows moving from top to bottom. Notice that the green arrows follow the flow of electron pairs. Note: dotted lines only represent the overall molecular shape and not molecular bonds.

Molecular arrangement of electron pairs around a central atom A. Dotted lines only represent the overall molecular shape and not molecular bonds. Van Der Waal's forces weak and hydrogen bonding strong. London forces between Cl 2 molecules, dipole-dipole forces between HCl molecules and H-bonding between H 2 O molecules. Notice that one H 2 O molecule can potentially form 4 H-bonds with surrounding molecules which is highly efficient.

The preceding is one key reason that the boiling point of water is higher than that of ammonia, hydrogen fluoride, or methanol. W can be determined experimentally by calculating the area under a pressure-volume curve. A valid e-mail address is required in case you forget your password and for contacting our technical support. We do not share your contact information with third parties.

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The personal data that you provide is only used to answer your queries, process orders, allow access to product or account related information, and send helpful MCAT preparation advice. You have the right to modify and delete all personal information stored with us at anytime.

For details, click here: Privacy Policy. A General Chemistry summary on Raoult's Law, units of concentration and more. A General Chemistry summary on acids and bases plus a video on Buffers.The ancient Egyptians first identified, studied, and applied the principles of chemistry to extract metal from ores, make alcoholic beverages, glaze pottery, turn fat into soap, and much more. What began as a quest to build better weapons and create potions capable of ensuring everlasting life became the foundation of modern science.

Take a look around you: chemistry is the science that describes everything you touch, see, and feel: from the shampoo you used this morning, to the plastic container that holds your lunch!

In this course, we will study chemistry from the ground up: beginning with the basics of the atom and its behavior, to the chemical properties of matter, to the chemical changes and reactions that take place.

First, read the course syllabus. Then, enroll in the course by clicking "Enroll me in this course". Click Unit 1 to read its introduction and learning outcomes.

You will then see the learning materials and instructions on how to use them. Our first step in this course is to gain a basic understanding of matter and define the basic terminology used to describe matter. This unit will also provide you with a refresher on measurements, as much of this class will require you to express quantities in standard units and amounts. We will also learn about significant figures, which may be a new concept for those of you who have not yet taken a science course.

The atom, along with its protons, neutrons, and electrons, is the basic unit of matter and serves as our starting point for the study of chemistry. Scientists have studied atoms for hundreds of years and have developed a number of different models to describe them. Chemists currently use the quantum mechanical model, which has been around for decades. The "laws" of this model continue to intrigue and spark debate among scientists.

CHEMISTRY-GRADE 12.pdf

For example, one theory states it is impossible to know the exact location and velocity of an electron at the same time. Bonds are connections between atoms. According to VSEPR theory, the number of electrons an element has corresponds with its chemical properties.

Sodium and potassium both have one valence electron, which explains their similar properties, while neon is a stable element with eight valence electrons. Chemists need to write out formulas and equations to solve chemistry problems. In this unit, we begin to name and write compounds and learn how to write out and balance chemical equations. Equations enable us to describe chemistry topics in mathematical terms and predict the outcomes of reactions.

For example, what volume of steam created if we turn one kilogram of ice into pure steam, at o Celsius and sea-level air pressure? We can calculate the precise answer when we write the reaction out in the form of an equation! In this unit, we look at how matter behaves. We will begin with gases because we can describe their behaviors and properties in straightforward equations. We will also study the phase diagram, which predicts the state solid, liquid or gas of any group of molecules at any given temperature or pressure.

In this unit, we study thermochemistry, which deals with the temperature- and heat-related aspects of chemistry, and thermodynamics, which focuses on the overall energies associated with chemical reactions. Thermodynamics will lead us to the Gibbs free energy equation, which tells us whether a chemical reaction is spontaneous or will occur without external help. Now let's look at two types of chemical reactions: acid-base and oxidation-reduction.

We will also examine pH calculations, and learn how to use the pH scale to identify acidic and alkaline solutions. Finally, let's examine the processes of nuclear decay, nuclear fusion, and nuclear fission. We will discuss different types of nuclear decay, learn how to write equations that describe nuclear reactions, review the concept of half-life in the context of radioactive decay, and learn how city planners use nuclear fission to generate electric energy. These study guides will help you get ready for the final exam.

They discuss the key topics in each unit, walk through the learning outcomes, and list important vocabulary terms. They are not meant to replace the course materials! Please take a few minutes to give us feedback about this course. We appreciate your feedback, whether you completed the whole course or even just a few resources. Your feedback will help us make our courses better, and we use your feedback each time we make updates to our courses. If you come across any urgent problems, email contact saylor.Photo courtesy of L.

Barry Hetherington. Physical Chemistry.

Download: General Chemistry.pdf

Physical Chemistry II. Principles of Chemical Science. Introduction to Experimental Chemistry. Kinetics of Chemical Reactions. Biological Chemistry I.

general chemistry notes

Small-Molecule Spectroscopy and Dynamics. Chemistry Laboratory Techniques. Biological Chemistry II. Laboratory Chemistry. It has an illustrious history in sharing the MIT tradition of excellence, and it has provided national leadership in chemical education and research throughout the century. The Department's strong record of achievement is solidly based on its pioneering advances in chemical research, its success in incorporating these advances into teaching and research programs, and its close relationship to government and industry.

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general chemistry notes

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general chemistry notes

Download files for later. Send to friends and colleagues. Modify, remix, and reuse just remember to cite OCW as the source. Links to archived prior versions of a course may be found on that course's "Other Versions" tab. Additionally, the Archived Chemistry Courses page has links to every archived course from this department.

Video Physical Chemistry. Introductory Principles of Chemical Science. Editor's Pick Introduction to Experimental Chemistry. Editor's Pick Kinetics of Chemical Reactions. Educator Biological Chemistry I. Video Small-Molecule Spectroscopy and Dynamics. Educator Chemistry Laboratory Techniques. Course Course Title Level 5.

S15 Kitchen Chemistry Spring Undergraduate 5. No courses match the topics and filters you have selected. Some Description Instructor s Prof. Need help getting started? Don't show me this again Welcome!Reactions involving radicals tend to occur in the gas phase and in solution in non-polar solvents, and to be catalyzed by light and by the addition of other radicals.

Reactions involving ionic intermediates take place more readily in solution in polar solvents, because of the greater ease of separation of charges therein and very often because of the stabilization of the resultant ion pairs through solvation.

In conjugated systems, p-electrons shifting takes place consecutively giving permanent polarity on the chain. This effect extends the degree of delocalization and imparts stability to the molecule. Complete transfer of p-electrons from one atom to other to produce temporary polarity on atoms joined by multiple bonds, in the presence of an electrophile is known as electromeric effect. Effect is reversible and temporary.

Delocalization of sigma electrons also known as sigma-pi — conjugation or no bond resonance. It is a permanent effect. Hence, in above examples structures I,ii,iii,iv are hyperconjugate structures H-structures. Bond Length: Hyperconjugation also affects bond lengths because during the process the single bond in compound acquires some double bond character and vice-versa. Dipole moment: Since hyperconjugation causes this development of charges, it also affects the dipole moment of the molecule.

Stability of Free radicals:.

There is a vacant unhybridized p orbital which e. Any structural feature which tends to reduce the electron deficiency at the tricoordinate carbon stabilizes the carbocation. Pyramidal structures similar to those of amines.

This type of isomerism arises from the difference in the structure of carbon chain which forms the nucleus of the molecule. It is the type of isomerism in which the compounds possessing same molecular formula differ in their properties due to the difference in the position of either the functional group or the multiple bond or the branched chain attached to the main carbon chain.

In this type of isomerism two compounds have the same molecular formula but possess different functional groups. This type of isomerism is due to the unequal distribution of carbon atoms on either side of the functional group in the molecule of compounds belonging to the same class.

For example, methyl propyl ether and diethyl ether both have the molecular. It is the type of isomerism in which two functional isomers exist together in equilibrium.MasteringChemistry - graded homework questions, problems, and tutorials. Access and register through Canvas. Mastering Registration instructions in Canvas. The grading policy is given at the start of each chapter on the M. Be sure to ensure your browser has the required settings, players and plugins. If you experience problems with MasteringChemistry, then contact support at MasteringChemistry with a description of your problems.

If you have difficulties with entering your answers on your own computer, then use a UNF computer at the library or computer lab. The penalty for late homework assignments is listed for each assignment on MasteringChemistry. The UNF Bookstore can assist you. The use communications and programming is prohibited.

The calculator should be capable of scientific notation, log, and exponential functions. If a graphing calculator is used, you must clear the memory before receiving the exam. A message will be displayed as RAM Cleared. I may ask for calculators and inspect the outside of the calculator and the memory during the exams. Academic misconduct with a calculator will result in a minimum penalty of a zero on the exam. For instance, to enter 6. A common error is to enter 6.

Exams The exam format typically consists of conceptual questions and problems to be worked and answered multiple choice format. See syllabus for dates of exams. There isn't a single answer and it varies from student to student.

General suggestions are given below.